Mongolia becomes independent from China – This is Guangzhou
At the beginning of the 20th century, Mongolia, as a rural country with a rigid social and economic division of its population, was heavily dependent on China for basic necessities such as rice, tea and tobacco.
The nobility and officials often went into debt and increased taxes on the population. As a result, many ordinary Mongols were impoverished and openly dissatisfied with authority, which led them to rebel.
Many ordinary Mongols were also unhappy with the policy of sinification put in place by the Manchu emperor who encouraged Chinese men to settle in Mongol territory in order to impose a Chinese way of life on the Mongols.
These factors have led the mongolian revolution of 1911, during which the Manchu Emperor was ordered to leave. Javzandamba VIII, known as the “Last Khaan of Mongolia”, was crowned Bogd Khan (“Holy Chief”), making him the head of Church and State, thus establishing Mongolia as a theocracy .
China and Russia were not happy with this independence movement and reduced Mongolia to an autonomous state under Chinese rule, thus creating a buffer state between China and Russia. This meant that while Mongolia had the right to determine its own internal affairs, China had control over its foreign affairs, including international trade.
Meanwhile, Russia itself had undergone a revolution in 1917 and had become a communist state. The White Army (loyal to the Tsar) and the Red Army (Communist) continued to fight in the Mongol lands, a situation that concerned the Republic of China established in 1912. China later dissolved the government of the Bogd Khan in February 1920, making Mongolia a Chinese country. protectorate.
Mongolian revolutionaries who formed the Mongolian People’s Party (MPP). Picture via Wikipedia
However, the struggle for Mongolian independence continued, with many Mongols forming their own liberation organizations such as the Mongolian People’s Party (MPP). The MPP won the support of the Bogd Khan and the Mongol princes and sent a delegation to Russia, requesting support from the Communists to organize the Liberation Army and supply them with ammunition. In February 1921, the Mongol rebels began to fight the Chinese. By the summer of that year, so many Mongols had joined the rebel fight that the Chinese were driven out of Mongolia.
On July 11, 1921, Mongolia proclaimed its independence, becoming a limited monarchy. The People’s Government was in charge of state affairs, and Bogd Khan regained the throne, becoming a symbolic state figure and religious leader.
[Cover image via Weibo/@雨打松枝之幸福]