Ukraine as Swiss Mongolia: neutrality as the end of the war
Ukraine has been betrayed by the United States and the United Kingdom. As part of the Budapest memorandum, the United States and the United Kingdom promised to provide security for Ukraine, but the world has seen that the United States and the United Kingdom have not kept their promise. On December 5, 1994, the leaders of Ukraine, Russia, Great Britain and the United States signed a memorandum to provide Ukraine with security guarantees as part of its accession to the NPT as as a non-nuclear-weapon state. All four parties signed the memorandum, containing a preamble and six paragraphs. The memorandum reads as follows:-
- The United States of America, the Russian Federation and the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland,
- Welcoming Ukraine’s accession to the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons as a non-nuclear-weapon State,
- Taking into account Ukraine’s commitment to eliminate all nuclear weapons from its territory within a specified period,
- Noting the evolution of the global security situation, including the end of the cold war, which created the conditions for a sharp reduction in nuclear forces.
Confirm the following:
The Russian Federation, the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and the United States of America reaffirm their commitment to Ukraine, under the principles of the Final Act of the Conference on Security and cooperation in Europe, to respect the independence and sovereignty and existing borders of Ukraine.
The Russian Federation, the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and the United States of America reaffirm their obligation to refrain from the threat or use of force against territorial integrity or political independence of Ukraine, and that none of their weapons will ever be used against Ukraine except in self-defence or otherwise in accordance with the Charter of the United Nations.
The Russian Federation, the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and the United States of America reaffirm their commitment to Ukraine, in accordance with the principles of the Final Act of the Conference on Security and cooperation in Europe, to refrain from any economic coercion aimed at subordinating to their interests the exercise by Ukraine of the rights inherent in its sovereignty and thus to secure advantages of any kind.
The Russian Federation, the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and the United States of America reaffirm their commitment to seek immediate action from the United Nations Security Council to assist Ukraine, as as a non-nuclear-weapon State and party to the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons, should Ukraine become the victim of an act of aggression or the object of a threat of aggression in which nuclear weapons are used.
The Russian Federation, the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and the United States of America reaffirm, in the case of Ukraine, their commitment not to use nuclear weapons against any State non-nuclear-weapon party to the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons, except under attack on themselves, their territories or dependent territories, their armed forces or their allies, by such State in association or alliance with a nuclear-weapon state.
Ukraine, the Russian Federation, the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and the United States of America will consult each other if a situation arises which raises a question regarding these undertakings.
It should be mentioned that Ukraine was the second most powerful republic of the former Soviet Union (USSR), with a third of the Soviet nuclear arsenal, the third in the world at that time, as well as significant means of its design. and manufacturing. 130 UR-100N intercontinental ballistic missiles (ICBMs) with six warheads each, 46 Molodets RT-23 ICBMs with ten warheads each, as well as 33 heavy bombers, totaling about 1,700 warheads, remained on Ukrainian territory. Officially, these weapons were controlled by the Commonwealth of Independent States. In 1994, Ukraine agreed to destroy weapons and join the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT), in exchange for financial assistance and security guarantees provided by the United States and the UK.
Although China and France also supported denuclearization but offered no security provisions, but with some important differences. For example, France’s commitment does not contain the promises set out in paragraphs 4 and 6 above, to refer any aggression to the UN Security Council, or to consult each other in the event of questions on the commitments.
China’s pledge takes an entirely different form, dating to December 4 and reading as follows:
The Chinese government welcomes Ukraine’s decision to destroy all nuclear weapons on its territory and welcomes the approval by the Verkhovna Rada of Ukraine on November 16 of Ukraine’s accession to the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty. nuclear weapons as a non-nuclear weapon state. China fully understands Ukraine’s desire to ensure its security. The Chinese Government has always affirmed that under no circumstances will China use or threaten to use nuclear weapons against non-nuclear-weapon States or nuclear-weapon-free zones. This position of principle also applies to Ukraine. The Chinese Government urges all other nuclear-weapon States to make the same commitment to enhancing the security of all non-nuclear-weapon States, including Ukraine.
The Chinese government has consistently opposed the practice of exerting political, economic or other pressure in international relations. He maintains that disputes and disputes should be settled peacefully through consultations on an equal footing. In keeping with the spirit of the Sino-Ukrainian Joint Communique of January 4, 1992 on the Establishment of Diplomatic Relations, the Sino-Ukrainian Joint Communique of October 31, 1992 and the Sino-Ukrainian Joint Statement of September 6, 1994, China recognizes and respects the independence, sovereignty and territorial integrity of Ukraine, and stands ready to further develop friendly and cooperative relations between China and Ukraine based on the five principles of peaceful coexistence.
Although in 1993 international relations theorist and University of Chicago professor John Mearsheimer published an article in which he predicted that a Ukraine lacking any nuclear deterrent was at risk of Russian aggression, he At the time, this was a very minority point of view and ignored by the world.
Given the Budapest Memorandum, the United States and the United Kingdom should have protected Ukraine and guaranteed its geographical integrity and sovereignty. Unfortunately, they went back on their promises and did not meet their obligations. It is a message to other nations that if they depend on them, they should be careful and not trust them. Former President Trump used to say America first which means they can do any unethical practices in the American interest. His Secretary of State Pompeo confessed that Americans lie, cheat, deceive and steal, etc.
Is this a lesson for the rest of the world, is the message clearly conveyed?